While the accepted answer is pretty great, I thought it would be worth it to share information on a TV show that wrecked around two cars per episode for 147 episodes during its run from 1979 to 1985: The Dukes of Hazzard.
As this post on Mental Floss explains; bold emphasis is mine:
“Over seven seasons, the General Lee went airborne more than 150 times. ...
Mashable wrote an article based on what was shared by Jenna Fischer and Angela Kinsey in episode 49 of their Office Ladies podcast:
12 watermelons were purchased for the trampoline test scene, and the first 10 or 11 takes didn't go well, so Daniels thought they'd
have to use a CGI watermelon in the end.
Miraculously, a watermelon finally bounced off the ...
The first production to use The Volume in this manner was The Mandalorian.
Slightly longer answer
The technology was developed through a few productions, with the original concept being used for Rogue One.
"Volume", or "the volume", is a term that has been used in motion-capture for quite a while now.
The Volume -...
You answered your own question in your comment to User101...'s answer. It's a brand new technology loosely based on green screen technology. It was first used to some degree in the live action The Lion King, but The Mandalorian is the first film to use Volume to that degree.
It was probably done with the rear projection technique.
I could not find any materials discussing this effect in Modern Times. Most of the easily-available material on effects for this movie cover the roller skating scene. That said, this effect was most likely done using the rear projection technique, in which a projector behind the screen projects the ...