Does The Shining have a distinct location or is it like Springfield where you can make a good guess but it's never really described?
It looks like you're asking about the 1980 Stanley Kubrick movie.
In that movie it's not clearly defined the exact location of the hotel. However we are given a few facts to narrow down the location:
The Overlook is located somewhere in the Colorado Rockies.
The Overlook is 25 miles from the nearest town; Sidewinder. Sidewinder however is a fictional town, so this doesn't provide any real help narrowing down the Overlook's location. (Thanks to Raidri for providing this information).
The Overlook is within driving distance from Boulder Colorado (where The family is staying prior to going to the Overlook).
According to this essay:
Kubrick's film claims the Overlook Hotel is built on an Indian burial ground, though this is only mentioned in passing. King's Pet Sematary (1983) does feature such a burial ground, but this novel does not.
We are given few hints to the root of the hotel's evil, if there is a root. King has suggested that the Overlook is a kind of extension of hell, or a pathway to it. By hell, we mean the idea of hell, whatever that means to you.
It's definitely intimately involved with the hell of the mind and the idea of hell on earth. How precisely the Overlook came to be such a place, or how the problems might be connected to the land, are up for interpretation.