- Infinity stones in Avengers series
- Mother Boxes in Justice league series
- Aries prototype in F9: The Fast Saga
- Project Starfish | The Suicide Squad (2021)
What's the first movie to use a prop to destroy/control an entire world?
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Some of the examples in your question are technically not "props", so I will answer what I think you're really trying to ask, rather than following the exact wording of the question.
In KoKo's Earth Control from 1928, the main characters find a "Control of Earth" booth. There are levers to control the entire world (weather, seasons and day/night cycle) or destroy it. Below, you can see Fitz the Dog inspecting the lever that destroys the world.
You can watch KoKo's Earth Control on YouTube (Warning: Flashing lights!)
"...Tully and Will stumble across Dr. Alfred Kokintz (David Kossoff), whose invention of the Q Bomb – capable of destroying an entire continent – has prompted the defence drills. He has built a football-sized prototype of the unstable bomb, which Tully takes possession of."