When Cooper (the daughter) worked out the equations which allegedly assured the survival of the human race on Earth, she threw her notes from the balcony in the space center: "EUREKA!"
Now, her father sent her information to solve the puzzle she was working on. Presumably a quantum theory of gravity (quantum gravity). He got this information ("quantum data") from Tars, who found it inside the tesseract. So somewhere in the future human beings were taught how to construct quantum gravity. But where did they got the means to construct one from? Probably from the physics books in which Cooper's theory is explained. She is a famous scientist (even the temporary cylindrical space station is named after her), so for sure her theory will be published and taught to others. So, in effect, she teaches the theory to future generations. These generations put the theory inside the tesseract and father Cooper sends it back to his daughter.
The paradox is clear. Where the hell did the theory come from? Out of nothing? Is there a name for such a paradox? (If it's a paradox at all; the twin paradox refers to a situation that can happen in reality, while at first sight, the situation is not about to occur.

The same situation occurs in J.J. Abraham's Star Trek. Spock sends information from the future about a present puzzle in teleportation. The puzzle is solved in the present and will be part of future knowledge.

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    It's just a time loop, but if you really want to consider it paradoxical then, "bootstrap paradox" or "predestination paradox".
    – Mithoron
    Commented Mar 23, 2021 at 23:05
  • @Mithoron But what is the origin (the cause) of the theory? In a time loop, there are true causes, which in this case is absent.The theory is clearly present in the movie. But how can this be? I think this is the only truly fictional part of the movie. You are right. It's the bootstraps paradox. Commented Mar 23, 2021 at 23:15
  • 1
    In Interstellar it's all weak sauce variety. Watch "Predestination" to get seriously mindblown. In extreme cases something can exist only in the loop - it's existence has no beginning or end.
    – Mithoron
    Commented Mar 23, 2021 at 23:26
  • "The Fall" blew my mind truly, as well as "Badlands" and "Gomorra" and "Romanzo Criminale". I'm gonna look for Predestination! Thanks! Commented Mar 23, 2021 at 23:32
  • @Mithoron Or Mr. Nobody, Equilibrium and Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas. Commented Mar 23, 2021 at 23:41


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