In the second post-credit scene of Captain Marvel, we see
Goose throwing up the Tesseract on Fury's desk
When does this happen in the MARVEL timeline? (Some time before The Avengers, I believe?)
In 1995. Just because Fury isn’t in the office, you can’t assume it’s post-snap (that would just be wrong).
It’s generally assumed that this event has to take place so that the Tesseract can be used for experimentation.