In The Expanse, (and other sci-fi keeping closer to the science than the fiction) the maneuver used to slow a space ship down is colloquialy referred to as flip and burn. What is the term used by real world aerospace engineers and pilots? Something like "retrograde thrust".
Something like "retrograde thrust".
You pretty much nailed it there.
It's usually applied to orbital manoeuvres since we currently don't venture out much further than Earth/Lunar orbit
A retrograde orientation is one that has the ship facing in the opposite direction from its direction of travel in its orbit.
A retrograde burn is one in that direction, i.e. that subtracts from the ship's orbital speed.
The effect of a retrograde burn is to lower the orbit's altitude (opposite the ship's current location); it is thus used when approaching a planet or moon and assuming a closed orbit, or when landing.
Essentially, thrust in the opposite direction to current one to slow down.