Maybe, but it would be more of a trick than actually trapping someone.
The only reason his plan worked was because Dormammu himself "lived outside of time". Meaning that while Dr. Strange put Dormammu's universe in a perpetual time loop, Dormammu himself experienced them as just forever repeating time. He remembered every cycle that occurred. So if Dr. Strange did this on Earth, it would work for beings that "lived outside of time" as well if there were any. Otherwise, they would just repeat the same cycle over and over while being completely oblivious of that fact that it was happening.
On the flip side, Dr. Strange did show the ability to only affect time in a small area. So it is reasonable to assume that he could trick someone in to thinking they're in a time loop by only affecting the area they're around. Though there isn't anything to suggest the illusion would work if the person, say, walked outside and saw time flow normally.