Some spoilers for Rising Sun ahead...
The person who gets shot in the back is Lt. Smith or "Kohai" Wesley Snipes and it knocks him out cold but does no real harm cause he's wearing a bullet proof vest. After he's shot, you briefly see the lead cop or "Sempai" Sean Connery, playing Captain Conner, check him to see if he's OK, before leaving the scene. The next scene Snipes is being questioned by his fellow LAPD officers and he's told that he was shot in a gang fight by an unknown shooter, which he objects to cause he knows it wasn't a gang fight but he's a good cop so he won't fight the story, but he's also disgusted by that version of events.
To give some background. There's a Japanese corporation in the US for a merger/purchase of a US company. At Japanese corporate headquarters, a call girl gets murdered and some high level executives want the murder case to be closed quickly so they can proceed with the merger.
There's Eddie Sakamura, played by Cary-Hiroyuki Tagawa, who's the prime suspect for the murder and who's on the Run.
There's the LAPD, who, don't like the Japanese at all, but when this scene happens, they arrive with one or two of the high level Japanese executives and their security guys. Harvey Keitel (LAPD) expresses willingness to let the Japanese handle the situation saying something like, "I'll wait in the car".
So, in this scene, both LAPD (based on planted evidence) and the Japanese Corporation (to close the case quickly), want to catch Eddie and charge him as fast as possible. Neat and tidy.
Then there's the two heroes, Connery and Snipes who want to find the real murderer. Snipes had been a loyal enough cop to the LAPD and his direct boss, Harvey Keitel, has some dirt on him, so LAPD assigns him to the case, figuring he's be a good cop and follow orders. Sean Connery, the senior officer, with no loyalty to LAPD, gets assigned the case based on the request of the Japanese CEO.
So in the scene in question, Eddie shows up at Snipes house with the original disk, the evidence that shows he's innocent. Connery gives Snipes a bullet proof vest and says "You may need this". Keitel shows up, knocks on the door and says "let me in", but because Eddie is there and he'd be immediately arrested, Snipes says no, you can't come in.
Keitel leaves and Connery knows that the shinola is about to hit the fan, so he sneaks out and does his thing, turning off the power in the building so they can sneak out, knocking out a few Japanese security guys in the garage and sneaking into the cop car and knocking out the two cops with a magic and not very believable nick grip, he knocks out both Keitel and his Partner in their patrol car (this is, obviously, after Keitel says "let the Japanese handle it, I'll be in my car", or something to that effect.
So, Connery returns and says "we can go out the garage", and they (with Snipes family, Connery carrying snipes daugher and leading the way, sneak out the back, but Eddie (Japanese honor), chooses instead to go out the front and face his enemies, even though they outnumber him like 6 to 1. Snipes is the first to notice he's gone and turns back to look for him, but he's too late. Eddie is killed and the Japanese executives get in their cars to high-tail it out of there.
This is the question. Snipes pulls out his gun to try to stop the Japanese from fleeing the scene and he gets shot in the back, knocking him out. I've watched it a few times and I can't work out who shoots him in the back. The shooter is never shown.
So, Question . . . Who shot him???
LAPD cops? I don't think they'd shoot one of their own to help the Japanese escape the scene. Plus the last we saw, they were knocked out cold by Connery and they chose to "sit it out and let the Japanese handle it".
The Japanese security guys? That's possible, but at the time, they were all escaping the scene. It's possible a security guard stayed back and shot Westley Snipes in the back. Believable, but not shown in the movie.
Or did Connery shoot him, cause he knew he had the vest on, so it would knock him down but not injure him. Perhaps Connery shot him because he wanted the Japanese to get away. He didn't see anything gained by Snipes perhaps putting a bullet in a tire and getting the car to crash?
None of the options are 100% satisfactory, with a Japanese security guy shooting him seeming the most probable. Answers from either (or both) Book and Movie are fine. I've not read the book though.