This has been addressed over on SF&F although not fully.
A Wired article speaking with Nolan mentions that they're not named after anything.
The main bot, named TARS (which doesn’t stand for anything), might as well be a distant cousin of 2001‘s monolith. Then again, nothing in Nolan’s world(s) is what it seems. “When I let my kids play with the model, open it up, see different combinations,” he says, “they started getting really excited.” Let’s peek inside the box.
There is some fan discussions here with a few theories, but nothing concrete in terms of information.
TARS could be an anagram of STAR, KIPP could be a reference to the physicist Kip Thorne, but these are just conjectures.