Are any of the storylines or characters from Marvel's Agents of Shield ever referenced in the MCU movies?
Quotes from Chloe Bennet, basically confirming there are no references in the movies at all
I don’t know. People who make movies for Marvel, why don’t you acknowledge what happens on our show? Why don’t you guys go ask them that? Cause they don’t seem to care!
The Marvel Cinematic Universe loves to pretend that everything is connected, but then they don’t acknowledge our show at all. So, I would love to do that, but they don’t seem to keen on that idea.
Apart from Phil Coulson and Nick Fury, none of the characters from the TV show are referenced in the MCU movies.
The other way around, there are a lot of (small) references/easter eggs from the movies tying in on AoS. Some I can think of atm:
Age of ultron: http://ew.com/article/2015/05/05/agents-shield-age-ultron-crossover/
Sokovia Accords: http://www.cinemablend.com/television/How-Captain-America-Civil-War-Tied-With-Agents-H-I-E-L-137187.html
Dr. Strange: http://comicbook.com/marvel/2017/05/16/agents-of-shield-doctor-strange-ghost-rider/
I've watched all MCU movies and all Agents of Shield seasons
Basically Agents of SHIELD is introduced as sweeper cover for Marvel Cinematic Universe's consequences so main flow is from movie to series, means there are lots of references of movie in the series and also including some characters but there are minor references of series in movies.
For Avengers movie, There isn't any major story from TV , but the Helicarrier in Age of Ultron is from TV story. That Helicarrier is not explained anywhere in movies just Fury stating 'Brought from an Old Friend(Phil Coulson)', that friend isn't available in movie storyline(as he dead in movies).
Yes, the very main character of MAOS Agent Phil Colson was in the first Avenger's movie i.e. Marvel's The Avengers.