He did not go to any teachers about doing "lines with that special quill".
Actually, Hermione suggested that Harry go to Dumbledore, but Harry said he would not go. (I looked for a clip, but could not find one. All the searches go directly to Harry and Umbridge.) Hermione then says that it is simple (a clear-cut case for which any teacher would act on behalf of the student). But Harry says something to the effect that whatever it is, it is not simple. And then he walks away.
In the book, it's Ron that tells Harry that he should seek assistance from McGonagall. Harry retorts that he is not certain if she had enough pull to defy Umbridge. Then Ron suggests doing to Dumbledore. But Harry is upset with Dumbledore because he has refused to speak with Harry for the longest time.
McGonagall does have a confrontation with Umbridge much later in the story, and for different reasons.