I have just started watching GoT and have tons of questions? But for now....
What are the Seven Kingdoms? Can the capitals, ruling houses, and words of those houses be included as well? If possible, a map would help a lot.
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From The World of Ice and Fire (a companion book to the main ASOIAF series):
For centuries it has been the custom to speak of the Seven Kingdoms of Westeros. This familiar usage derives from the seven great kingdoms that held sway over most of Westeros below the Wall during years immediately preceding Aegon’s Conquest. Yet even then, the term was far from exact, for one of those “kingdoms” was ruled by a princess rather than a king (Dorne), and Aegon Targaryen’s own “kingdom” of Dragonstone was never included in the count. Nonetheless, the term endures. Just as we speak of the Hundred Kingdoms of yore, though there was never a time when Westeros was actually divided into a hundred independent states, we must bow to common usage and talk of the Seven Kingdoms, despite the imprecision.
Now the Seven Kingdoms before Aegon's Conquest were:
After Aegon's Conquest the Kingdoms were restructured a bit and the former rulers or in some cases allies of Aegon that supported him were given the title of Lord Paramount. However, during Robert Rebellion and the The War of Five Kings there has been much upheaval. These are how the kingdoms are situated the current time.
Paramount Lordship of Vale and Mountain
Paramount Lordship of Iron Islands
Paramount Lordship of Westerlands
Paramount Lordship of North
Paramount Lordship of the Reach
Paramount Lordship of Stormlands
Paramount Lordship of Riverlands
Royal fief of Crownlands
Principality of Dorne
For a map you can see here: