If you want to know the first use of an actual cat as a jump scare, The Amityville Horror (1979) is the first one to do so.
The most far-back use of Cat Jump Scare I could find is Cat People. I did find two references for this. Although, there was no cat used. It was just shown that a cat is about to jump.
The art of the jump scare
While we may associate the technique with modern horror movies, it’s actually been with us almost as long as genre films themselves. Director Jacques Tourneur used it 70 years ago in Cat People, using the arrival of a bus to craft a scare that still plays today. Other filmmakers tried their own riffs in subsequent decades. Showman William Castle even brought the jump scare into the real world in 1959 with The Tingler, rigging seats in theaters to vibrate during a key sequence in the movie.
TV Tropes Cat Scare (emphasis mine)
Although the use of an actual cat for a Cat Scare is common enough to have named the trope, the general technique of building up tension and then startling the audience with something that turns out to be harmless is also known as a "Lewton Bus". This name comes from producer Val Lewton, who popularized the technique with a scene in his 1942 movie Cat People: the heroine is being stalked by a hostile were-panther, but the cat-like hissing noise that startles the heroine and audience turns out to have come from a bus's air brakes.
While there was not cat used in this movie, it inspired other directors to use it in their movies and started kind of a trend.
The same link suggests that it was first used in Alien in 1979.
But if you want to know the actual use of cat as a jump scare, The Amityville Horror (1979) is the first one to do so.