The Glass Fortress, also a French s-f short film, is made in a very similar style:
There is also a 2013 remake of La Jetée made by Matt Lambert:
Then there is Año Uña by Jonás Cuarón (son of Alfonso):
Año Uña is a wonderful film. Stylistically influenced by Chris
Marker’s La Jetée, Jonás Cuarón’s debut film is a postmodern merging
of fiction and truth. Snapping pictures of his family and girlfriend
at home in Mexico and New York for a year, he then collated the shots
before reassembling them into a totally new narrative.
In addition to the above, Wikipedia lists a number of homages and parodies of La Jetée. It isn't specified whether they are stylistically similar, but I think there is a high chance that at least some of them are:
The 2003 short film, La puppé, is both an homage to and a parody of La
Jetée. The video for Sigue Sigue Sputnik's 1989 single "Dancerama"
is also an homage to La Jetée. The film is one of the influences in
the video for David Bowie's "Jump They Say" (1993). Kode9 in
collaboration with Ms. Haptic, Marcel Weber (aka MFO), and Lucy Benson
created an homage to La Jetée in 2011, for the Unsound Festival.
The plot centers around the woman instead of the man and is a
"reimagining", in that it features a completely new, original script
that further develops the narrative whilst remaining true to the
original plot. The images and music of "Her Ghost" are almost
exclusively sourced from the original film, however they are
significantly reworked so as to create an original piece.
Lastly, there is also Sans Soleil from La Jetée director Chris Marker. While being stylistically similar to La Jetée, it's generally classified as a documentary:
Expanding the documentary genre, this experimental essay-film is a
composition of thoughts, images and scenes, mainly from Japan and
Guinea-Bissau, "two extreme poles of survival". Some other scenes were
filmed in Cape Verde, Iceland, Paris, and San Francisco. A female
narrator reads from letters supposedly sent to her by the (fictitious)
cameraman Sandor Krasna.
See also this article that deals with still images cinematography. Note that in comments people mention a lot of shorts using this technique, so you may want to review them, e.g. The Forgotten Love seems to match your criteria nicely.