As the title asks, is Rick and Morty satire/parody of Doc Brown and Marty McFly of the Back to the Future franchise? Or is it a generic play on the Mad Scientist and fish out of water cliché?
Yes. This is discussed by the creator of Rick and Morty in the Back To The Future documentary that was released recently.
The series has its origins in an animated parody of Back to the Future created by Roiland for film festival Channel 101.