I have seen this scene from "Me Before You" (2016), in which Louisa Clark sees galaxies with her naked eye.
Are galaxies visible with the naked eye?
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We can see the Milky Way (our galaxy) or a lot of stars when far enough from light pollution (cities for example).
Here is a map showing light pollution around the world.
In green areas of this map, you can easily see what is shown on your images, after maybe 5 minutes without light.
Yes, as noted above, the Milky Way (our own galaxy) is easily seen as a cloudy band across the sky in areas with little light pollution.
If (as I suspect) you mean galaxies outside of our own, then also yes, you can. The Andromeda galaxy can be seen on a good clear night with the naked eye, although I often find it easier to locate it with binoculars first. See this guide for help finding it.
If you are in the southern hemisphere, the two Magellanic Clouds are visible with the naked eye. Each is a satellite galaxy of our own Milky Way galaxy.
In the northern hemisphere, besides M31 in Andromeda, those with good sharp vision may also be able to see M33 in Triangulum with the naked eye though it is extremely faint.