I would like to know a little more about subtitling standards employed when distributing films to different countries.
I've searched about it, but I didn't find reliable information or several sites listed different standards.
Are there accepted standards used by the film industry for subtitling? If not one single standard, then what do possible standards depend on? Country, filmmakers, distribution company...
Besides everything I might not know, what I care the most about is:
Characters per line
The default value of editors is 45 per line and, although rare, a few sentences, like big explanations, seem very lengthy to the eyes
Should they be quoted, braced or italic?
Should the second line always be longer than the first? Sometimes, with long words, it's not possible but, is this even a standard?
What about short sentences like:
Jack?! What do we do now?!
In this fictional line, as example, it's clear that the person speaking makes a pause after saying "Jack".
Should it be kept as in this example or break "Jack?!" in one subtitle and the rest in another, regardless the in-between pause annoyance the editor always complains about?
The same for contemplative sentences, like:
Well... You could do this, this and that...
Or colloquial mannerisms:
Look, in my opinion you should do...