TLDR: He might or might not remember the details about that girl, the scene works either way, and either way it isn't a contradiction to briefly "forgetting" the bone claws.
Answering that he slept with the girl can well be an educated guess based on the current situation and what he knows about his general character traits. He might not remember details but that he naturally was/is a womaniser. In addition, it seems like a snarky remark and he probably just wants to get the thugs who already are looking aggressive out of the way - as is his nature, he goes the direct confrontational way in provoking them.
The claws on the other hand are natural to him and even though he might have been consciously aware before the time travel that he would travel to a time where he didn't have Adamantium claws, he might not consciously be aware of this fact in that moment, just following his instinctive memory how to "get into fighting mode" and then run into that brief "Ah, right!" moment. People who consciously decide to stop wearing a wrist-watch often still look at the empty spot on their wrist and realize that they actually decided the smart phone would be sufficient to tell the time.
Out of universe, the claw scene serves two functions. For one it reminds the audience that the claws are not Adamantium in this time. And second it is a comedy characterisation moment, that (re-) establishes some character traits for novices and provides some fun for the "experienced" audience. It shows that Logan quickly goes for the aggressive direct problem resolution route and that he is quite (over-)confident. Then in this moment, where the experienced audience expects his cool signature move, he has a tiny moment of self-embarassment we can grin about while he competently does his action thing.
So, he might remember all the details about the girl or he doesn't, the movie isn't totally clear about that, but the scene works either way. Forgetting that the claws aren't made of Adamantium, yet, isn't a contradiction in either case, as this is more a case of "conscious" vs. "sub-conscious" memory.