Are there any James Bond films in the "canon" other than "Goldfinger" where one of the principals used a Ford Mustang in a high performance scene?
Yes. Sean Connery drives a Mustang down the Las Vegas strip in 1971's Diamonds are Forever. See this post on the cars of James Bond for a description of the scene.
Connery also gets taken for a ride in a Mustang in Thunderball in a scene taking place in the Bahamas.