When Talia left the pit she is seen to be quite young maybe between 10-15, so assuming that she went and found here father who then returned and freed Bane (who doesn't look significantly older) within 5 years then I imagine that Bane would have been excommunicated from the League of Shadows well before Bruce Wayne was there.
That is based on the assumption that Talia and Bruce are roughly the same age.
Also Talia says that she could not forgive her father for excommunicating Bane from the League of Shadows until Bruce killed him suggesting that she was angry at him for a long time, however Bruce only killed Ra's Al Ghul a short while after he trained with the league so it would seem that Talia and Bane were not there.
When Bruce is training with the league in Batman Begins he talks to Ra's Al Ghul about his parents death and Ra's Al Ghul tells him that he had a wife but that she was taken from him, I imagine he would mention his daughter at this point if she was there and there was not bad feelings between the two.
I know that all these points are just suggestion but there will be no concrete answer in the films but I am pretty confident in saying that no they were not both there at the same time.