I wonder what is the specific term used or what are those movies like 127 Hours called that are recorded at the same place?
I don't work in the film industry, so am happy to accept I could be wrong, but I don't think there is an "official" term for this. I think colloquially it is simply known as a one-location film.
This article discusses some of the benefits and reasons for doing them:
The idea of making a film in one location is both tempting and horrifying for filmmakers. On one side, there is an immense production advantage: costs across the spectrum are considerably reduced and in some cases virtually eliminated. The production team only needs to secure, light, and art direct one location, and there is no longer a need to spend money transporting crew, cast and equipment from one location to another. Furthermore, shooting time and crew size are minimized as a result of the narrow production demands. Thus, shooting in one location may guarantee a low production cost without sacrificing production value. On the other side, setting a film on one location presents creative challenges to the writer, the director, and the production team that could potentially trigger the failure of the film and are not as present in films designed to take place in multiple locations.
To create a successful one-location film – a feature shot in one or mostly one location – a writer needs to construct a plot that must be entertaining, meaningful and cinematic, confined within four physical walls. A director must invoke a performance from his/her actors that shows progression and change in character without the option of changing their environment. In doing so he/she must also stay faithful to the medium by using character interaction rather than theatrical monologues to reveal internal conflict and transformation. The director, together with the production design team and cinematographer, need to develop a visual strategy to keep the audience interested and focused; avoiding repetition of shots and not being deliberate. The combination of these techniques must as a whole convey to the audience that by the end of the film the actors are, but are not, in the same place where the film started.
One-location films have been attempted on both the micro-budget and the studio level. In both cases, there have been those that have captivated audiences and critics, and those that have fallen flat...