I would contend that the closest technical term for this is "Cliffhanger". From the Wiki:
A cliffhanger or cliffhanger ending is a plot device in fiction which
features a main character in a precarious or difficult dilemma or
confronted with a shocking revelation at the end of an episode or a
movie of serialized fiction. A cliffhanger is hoped to incentivize the
audience to return to see how the characters resolve the dilemma.
The point of the cliffhanger is to bring the audience back for the next episode, and in shows like Quantum Leap, it worked pretty effectively.
There isn't really a term for overlapping episodes, it can't really be considered a "Recap Sequence" as the previous episode is mostly inconsequential.