Is it a problem to have little to no knowledge about the Dune universe before watching the new movie?
Is it helpful to have read the books or watched any prior adaption to fully understand the plot?
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As with every adaptation of books to the big screen, of course you will miss out on the finer details of the plot without knowing anything.
However, you will also notice all the imperfections, embellishments, hand-waived overlooked plot points, missing plot lines, character mis-casts, etc...
Realistically, the movie should be seen on its own and it can stand on its own without much effort.
It introduces the world, characters and plot to the wide audience, without assuming you know anything. There is exposition in dialogue and off-screen narration.