Someone might be able to find specific info for Star Trek, but there is no general rule in the industry.
Scenes are rarely shot in order. They are shot according to actor and set/location availability. If they have to build some special set to be an alien ship's bridge for just one episode, they'll shoot everything they can on it so they can break it down again in time to re-use the space for the next special build.
Not really applicable to Star Trek or anything shot entirely indoors but relevant to many productions is crew availability and rest time. If they need several night scenes, then in order to maintain the crew's 'right to rest period' they will film maybe a whole week of nights, everything they need for a whole block, then next week go back to standard days. You can't film a night shoot immediately followed by a day shoot - everybody must get a minimum time between wrap and call.
The rest depends on budget, project duration and also whether they can film scenes simultaneously that don't require the same director. Also dependant on budget is how long they are given to shoot each scene. Some rapid-fire shows can hammer through 12 scenes a day; most will be looking at maybe 5, max. High budget shows down to one or perhaps two. [Massive budget might spend two weeks on a single scene, but that's rare for TV].
Simple establishing shots or scenes with light dialog might be given to a second unit, but the main characterisation, look and feel of a show is usually in the hands of one director per block. A block could be anywhere from a single episode to three or four, or far more rarely these days, the entire season.
Soaps and long seasons - 26 episode shows - may have more flexibility in this, with two or more units concurrently filming separate blocks, with different directors. These tend to be booked around availability of the main cast, so it's not impossible Riker, Troi, Crusher or Data could potentially be shooting one episode in the morning on one stage, then another in the afternoon, on a different stage. Production will try to keep actors employed in such a way as to keep just one plot at a time in their 'head space' but it's not always possible.