The simple answer is no, not really.
The more interesting answer is... more interesting.
First of, Superman I and II were actually filmed with the intention of being a two part story. Superman III and IV were numbered because the the first two set a precedent - and while there are characters in common with the first two movies, there isn't really all that much continuity. You can certainly watch the third and fourth movies without the other two.
Onto Bond then.
Bond was a character in books before he was in movies. Fleming didn't really write for continuity, and the books were rather short, limiting detail around the Bond character.
The first movie, Dr No, was not the first book. In fact, it took until the twenty-first movie until they did make the first book into a movie, Casino Royale.
For the most part, the first twenty movies are pretty much watchable all own their own, with very little ongoing story development, even though many of the characters return each movie (M, Q, Moneypenny, Blofeld) - although there is some little continuity here and there - the most well known thread being Bond's wife. Overall, though, these movies are fairly independent.
However, since Casino Royale and Daniel Craig taking on Bond, the last few movies have resulted in a developing thread. In Casino Royale, we see a fresh Bond get his 00 licence. Quantum of Solace has him follow a trail laid down at the end of the previous movie. Skyfall alludes to a shadow organisation, and sees in a new M. Spectre reveals the shadow organisation, brings in threads laid down in Casino Royale and Quantum of Solace. Finally, the latest movie, No Time to Die (yet to be released) will apparently tie any loose threads ready for a new actor to come in and take in the role.