Well, I am by no means a Rocket Scientist or Military Strategist but from my perspective I see 3 primary "Types" of weapons that can practically be used in a space combat environment.
Kinetic weapons - Which is to say any non-maneuvering point to point sub speed of light weapon that deals damage either through pure kinetic energy or through some means of volatile payload. These types of weapons in the context of space combat are short range devices, only practical when the distance between the two ships is so close that the ship is unable to evade in the time span between when you see the object being fired and when it arrives. As a sub-light projectile it will be seen well before arrival assuming sufficient distance making getting out of the way a breeze.
Light-Based Weapons - Weapons of this type, unless there is a detectable firing delay, are impossible to evade once spotted as they will have already hit you! But that doesn't mean its a sure thing. Light-based weapons must be fired blind, as in you are firing at where you think the target will be when it hits. Simply flying unpredictably will give these types of weapons an astronomically low chance of hitting unless at close range, or if the target area is saturated in fire covering multiple predicted angles.
Intelligent Weapons - Weapons such as Missiles or anything that is able to maneuver or think on its own fall into this category. These weapons can be fired in anticipation of a fight and set to linger like a cruise missile, or in the expected path of an object, as well as accelerate much faster than a spacecraft. By being able to maneuver and possibly home in on an object the only defense to these objects is by ship based countermeasures.
What it boils down to is one key factor. Distance. Within distances where the speed of light does not factor in then it is a slug fest down to whoever is able to inflict critical damage first(whether that be offensively or defensively with shields/Armour). In situations where the speed of light would factor in then, which is almost every case of space conflict then the the winner will be determined by variables such as Unpredictability of maneuvering, Countermeasures for Active-Tracking weapons, volume of fire and Shipboard Sensor Packages (being able to detect and track enemy ships and weapons and act accordingly)