Assuming the Time Lords don't move it again, you'd have to go to the end of the universe. The Doctor should find that the time passed on Gallifrey is at least as long as their own personal time since they last left.
The exact mechanism by which Gallifrey is "currently" at the end of the universe is unknown. It may exist in its own spacetime extending beyond the "end", or it may be constantly travelling back in time to "always" remain at the moment of the end, or something else involving lots of words like quantum.
As a general principal, it is not possible to travel into Gallifrey's past. The universe, and TARDIS travel in particular, is synchronised to Gallifrey's local time. Once anyone has interacted with Gallifrey it is impossible to "later" interact at an "earlier" time.
This concept is most explicit in the novels. See for example, the Web of Time. It is consistent with on-screen portrayals.
When Clara entered the Doctor's time-stream one fragment appeared in Gallifrey's past. However, at that point Gallifrey didn't "currently" exist in the Universe, so the rule may not be applicable.
The Moment brings the Doctor's future incarnations to Gallifrey. The Moment is highly advanced Time Lord technology, the most powerful weapon ever to exist. I can believe it is capable of bypassing whatever enforces the synchronisation.
Clara ends up under the Doctor's childhood bed during "Listen", somehow casually bypassing the war's time lock as well.
Out of Universe, consistency arises more through coincidence than writer effort.