The scene I'm referring to takes place in Rivendell where Galadriel, Saruman, Elrond and Gandalf discuss the dwarves' quest and the Morgul blade.
It's been a few years since I read The Hobbit and I'm wondering if this scene took place in the book?
They are referred to as the White Council in the lore of LotR. This meeting does not take place in The Hobbit but is mentioned in The Lord of the Rings Appendices which were released with The Return of the King.
This meeting is mentioned in Appendix B, at least according to the LotR wiki
Information about the appendices can be found here.
Furthermore, I'd like to point out that Peter Jackson only has rights to make movies based on The Hobbit and the LotR series. So anything in these movies will only come from these 4 books.
No it's not. It is mentioned but not in the Hobbit. I believe it's from another book of Tolkiens though and I'll link to it if I find the reference.