Alphaville is one of my favorite movies. The plot, characters, and narration have always seemed very unique to me. I am wondering what influenced them, particularly the idea of a galactic capital city where a philosophizing computer resides.
The closest reference to any type of influences on this movie come from the wiki article on this film describing:
Essentially the style of the film was influenced by an artist that had a similar tone to the movie that helped Godard come up with the tone of the film.
For further reading, there is a book that these references come from that you can get on Amazon. Most likely an interesting read if you are a huge Godard fan.