At the end of Interstellar, we see a colony-camp built on Wolf Edmunds' planet. Is it built by Dr. Brand after her arrival or was it built by Edmunds for the arrival of the human race?
Now first of all, Richard is right in his answer that it isn't really much of a huge colony but just a little camp built from the resources they brought with the Lander from the Endurance.
While some it could have been built by Edmunds, there are indeed some elaborations in the film that the majority of it was indeed set up by Brand. When her camp and her fate on the planet are shown it is Murph who talks about Brand and says
But even more so, the movie actually shows Brand digging out what looks like Edmunds' living container together with a torn flag, right before she buries the deceased Edmunds. So we can deduce that the majority of Edmunds' camp was actually not really usable at all and covered in rubble.
The Nolan brothers' screenplay of the film (as published in Jordan Goldberg's Interstellar: The Complete Screenplay With Selected Storyboards) confirms this, too:
What you've grandly described as the "colony" consists of Brand's lander (at the top of the frame), two pre-made modules from the Endurance (on the right) and a couple of popup tents along with various crap that's been shuttled down from space. Given that the tents are flying a different Project Lazarus flag than the one seen next to Edmund's grave, I think it's reasonable to assume that Brand has erected the majority of this stuff on her own, although given the extreme proximity to Edmund's grave, it's certainly possible that some of it was there before she landed.
For the record, the novelisation also makes it clear that Brand is on her own at this point (e.g. that Coop hasn't arrived yet).
Note the comparison with what Dr. Mann was able to do in much the same timescale...