Seems this is S.H.I.E.L.D operative Brock Rumlow. According to Frank Grillo who plays him:
"Very early on the [film's directors] Russos said, 'Look, this is an origin film for this character. We're gonna discover who this is and this is a big movie with a lot of moving parts, but we're gonna discover you in this film and, you know, here's the information about who Brock Rumlow turns into and blah, blah, blah.' And so we've had multiple discussions about what comes after that, that thing. So, you know, it's obvious Rumlow is covered in rubble and burned to [a] crisp at the end, but you see he's still there. They don't do that for no reason."
So this appears to be a set up for Rumlow's alter-ego Crossbones, a Red Skull henchman involved in the assassination of Captain America. This site is one of several that support the theory (scroll down about 2/3 of the way).