Is there a term for a dialogue-driven movie that takes place entirely on a single set? Some examples would be:
A possible term for this kind of movies might be a Chamber Play:
While this originates from theatre, it is also used nowadays to describe movies that are not only set at a very confined space but whose action also pans out more through the dialog between very few actors and the intimate conflicts between them.
Considering your examples, while I'm not sure I would use it to describe Rear Window in its entirety (which more or less, even if not completely, still lives mainly from "external" conflicts and actions, I think), it seems a very good fit for 12 Angry Men (don't know the others, though).
In Television, the terminology would be "Bottle Episode".
It refers to an episode of a series that takes place within a confined setting: Ostensibly because of some plot development, but perhaps more likely as a budgetary measure to keep production costs down.
Community (Which is unflinchingly post-modern) even has an episode in which the characters become 'self-aware' that the nature of their dialogue would indicate they are living within a bottle episode.
The phrase was apparently first circulated by the cast and crew of Star-Trek, so was used no earlier than the mid 1960's...
Whilst obviously originating in Television, the terminology has become used transmedially to apply to all formats that match the criteria to appear as a 'Bottle Episode': Video Games,TV & Animation and Movies included.
...And so, even though some of the films you have mentioned were made before the terminology existed, they still fall under the remit of its application, and are retrospectively re-cast as bottle episodes.