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In Les Misérables (2012), I can't understand why Jean Valjean died at the end. There was no reason given in the movie. Jean Valjean was sitting on a chair inside the convent and was praying and said,

God on high, hear my prayer. Take me now to thy care. Where you are, let me be. Take me now, take me there. Bring me home.

What was the cause of Jean Valjean's death?

Was it sickness? Was it old age? From his prayer, it sounds like Jean Valjean was tired of his life and asking God to take his life, thus saying "bring me home". But I'm not sure.

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Are you asking what caused him to die? Or why was the movie version script written that way? – Pᴀᴜʟsᴛᴇʀ2 Jan 8 '14 at 18:32
@Paulster2 Yeah. I mean the cause. Updated. – Mawia Jan 8 '14 at 18:34

Wikipedia lists this reason from the musical (which the 2012 film is based on) as:

At a convent, Valjean awaits his death, having nothing left to live for.

That may be, but he was also pretty old for the time period, and serving 19 years of hard labor probably didn't help.

  • 1768 - Birth of Jean Valjean (book)
  • 1796 - Jean Valjean is sentenced to prison (28)
  • 1815 - He is released (47)
  • 1823 - He is Mayor and becomes guardian to Cosette (55)
  • 1832 - There is upheaval in Paris and the events of the student revolution take place. (64)
  • 1832 or 1833 - Jean Valjean dies. (64 or 65)

At age 65 he is well past the average life expectancy of something living in France in the 19th century. Admittedly, when you are constantly in war, the life expectancy is pretty low. French people didn't see a life expectancy above 60 until after World War 2.

So it is probably a combination of old age, and having no more reason to live (believing that he will never see Cosette again).

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Any possibility that he was asking God to take his life? – Mawia Jan 9 '14 at 5:14
That's not how Average Life Expectancy works. At all. -1 sorry Jack. – cde Nov 18 '15 at 7:50

The source novel (as translated) indicates that he died of wasting, a condition marked by under-nutrition, reduced physical activity and which ultimately results in chronically low blood pressure and systemic organ failure. His wasting was evidently prompted by late onset depression and a change in mental state

His portress, who prepared his scanty repasts, a few cabbages or potatoes with bacon, glanced at the brown earthenware plate and exclaimed:
"But you ate nothing yesterday, poor, dear man!"
"Certainly I did," replied Jean Valjean.
"The plate is quite full."
"Look at the water jug. It is empty."
"That proves that you have drunk; it does not prove that you have eaten."
"Well," said Jean Valjean, "what if I felt hungry only for water?"
"That is called thirst, and, when one does not eat at the same time, it is called fever."
"I will eat to-morrow."


A week passed, and Jean Valjean had not taken a step in his room. He still remained in bed.


One evening Jean Valjean found difficulty in raising himself on his elbow; he felt of his wrist and could not find his pulse; his breath was short and halted at times; he recognized the fact that he was weaker than he had ever been before.

Given that Jean Valjean was exerting himself at the point at which he died, it seems reasonably likely that the primary symptom of death was heart failure.

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He simply lost the will to live. There is no medical reason given, and he was, as an able bodied male, a bit too young to die of old age complications. It's possible he did have an undiagnosed medical condition, but the story does not touch on that. The state of Medicine was far less advanced at the time.

To explain the Average Life Expectancy at the time WAS lower, maybe 35 years or so, but this is deceptive at first glance. A high infant mortality rate heavily skews this number. When 800 babies out of 1000 die before age 5, the average plummets. If you discount childhood deaths, an able bodied male that reaches adulthood (20+) of the early 1800's would live to be between 60 and 80 years old, some outliers reaching 90. (Women had the same issue with childhood deaths AND dying in childbirth, but still outlive men by 5 years on average).

Valjean, who in later life is a mayor, slightly well off, would be an old man in death. Compare him to the American Founding Fathers, same time period (Colonial America to Industrial Revolution), died as old men.

Thomas Jefferson 83, John Adams 90, George Wythe was 80, Paul Revere was 83, Ben Franklin was 84. Only George Washington died a young 67, from blood loss, not old age complications.

Given this, he died a bit younger than normal, baring accident/murder or medical illness. Having not been able to see Cosette anymore, he lost his will live, and that's very important. Ask anyone in a medical field, and they will tell you, someone fighting to live has a notably higher chance of surviving than those that don't, like the placebo effect.

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Based on the play, I always assumed he had gotten sick (pneumonia?) saving Marius by wading in the sewers. In the book, after he marries Cosette, Marius is a real jerk to him and forces him to only meet with Cosette in a basement where he catches a chill and dies from it. Either way, Marius is a jerk and responsible for the death of the coolest French guy ever.

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Pneumonia would be a very hard to hide sickness. A constant cough, chest pains, fever, and a quick death. Nothing in the book, plays or movie suggested it. Pneumonia was well known disease, and fatal early in history. By 1800s any doctor would know that's what killed him. If it was a sickness, it wouldn't have been pneumonia. – cde Nov 18 '15 at 8:44

Well, in the book it said that he had a fever. That and he lived till eighty and the average life expectancy back them was like 65 or lower. So illness and old age? And heartbreak over not being able to see Cosette again I think.

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