In Star Trek: Generations, it was this very thing that destroyed the stardrive section of the Enterprise-D. As soon as LaForge recognized that a coolant leak had occurred, he evacuated Engineering immediately and reported to the bridge that a warp core overload was inevitable and irreparable. Yet in the very next film, Star Trek: First Contact, Picard suggests (and Data supports) causing a massive coolant leak in order to eradicate the Borg infestation there.
Two reasons come to mind:
It is reassuring that my thoughts are echoed by the article on plasma coolant in the Memory Alpha wiki.
The short answer is that it wasn't the coolant rupture (in Star Trek: Generations) that seems to have led to the warp core explosion, it was the failure of the magnetic interlocks within the warp core. The coolant leak was a secondary issue, and one that resulted in Engineering being evacuated, but this seems to be more to do with the health of the staff than the health of the engine
We see a similar issue in DS9: Our Man Bashir.
As to whether the loss of coolant was an issue, it may be stating the obvious that there are two plasma coolant tanks. Data only broke one of them. It seems likely (in fact downright certain) that the Enterprise-E can survive on only a single tank, at least for the amount of time needed to effect repairs.
This is backed up by the film's official novelisation