Besides gaining reputation with your questions and answers, you receive badges for being especially helpful. Badges appear on your profile page, flair, and your posts.

Question Badges

Asked a well-received question on 30 separate days, and maintained a positive question record
19 awarded
Question favorited by 25 users
Question score of 25 or more
140 awarded
Asked a question with 2,500 views
939 awarded

Answer Badges

First to answer and accepted with score of 10 or more
887 awarded
Edited and answered 50 questions (both actions within 12 hours, answer score > 0)
2 awarded
Provided non-wiki answers of 15 total score in 20 of top 40 tags
Accepted answer and score of 40 or more
26 awarded
Answer score of 25 or more
168 awarded
Answered a question more than 60 days later with score of 5 or more
207 awarded
Zero score accepted answers: more than 5 and 20% of total

Participation Badges

Voted for a candidate in the final phase of an election
165 awarded
Left 10 comments with score of 5 or more
17 awarded
Visited the site each day for 30 consecutive days. (Days are counted in UTC.)
129 awarded
Earned 200 daily reputation 50 times
Voted 10 times, added 3 posts score > 0, and visited the site on 3 separate days during the private beta
24 awarded
10 posts with score of 2 on meta
20 awarded
Posted 10 messages in chat that were starred by 10 different users
5 awarded
Active member for a year, earning at least 200 reputation
867 awarded

Tag Badges

You must have a total score of 400 in at least 80 non-community wiki answers to achieve this badge.
3 awarded

Moderation Badges

Raised 80 helpful flags
10 awarded
Voted 300 or more times
67 awarded
Completed at least 250 review tasks. This badge is awarded once per review type
19 awarded
Edited 80 posts
19 awarded
Edited 100 posts that were inactive for 6 months
2 awarded
Up voted 100 answers on questions where an answer of yours has a positive score
4 awarded
Edited 50 tag wikis
6 awarded
Created a tag used by 50 questions
27 awarded

Other Badges

Shared a link to a question that was visited by 300 unique IP addresses
3 awarded